This paper examines the role of librarian in replicating classroom experiences in an online environment in Nigeria. This article explores the literature that focuses on the adoption of technology in education, various roles being plays by librarians in the 21st century on use of technology for service delivery. The kernel of this article is that advancement in technology has changed not only the nomenclature of librarian but their service delivery from traditional to online mode. The literature reviewed provides a glimpse into how technology can be employed in replicating classroom online with the lockdown of academic institutions as a result of coronavirus as well as possible roles that librarians can play in this wise. This article identifies various tools for online education settings and explains how librarians can collaborate with the stakeholders.
The Federal Government of Nigeria joined her counterpart around the world to issue notice on lockdown of schools, pubs, restaurants, cafes, gyms and other businesses on the 24th of March, 2019 as a mean to prevent the transmission of the disease. It is no more news that Coronavirus started from world-famous Huanan seafood market in Wuhan in the late 2019. Babalola (2020) reported that the World Health Organization (WHO) refer to the virus as Covid-19 which references the type of virus and the year it emerged on February 11, 2020.
Since the discoveries of the virus, it is been transmitted from countries to countries without particular treatment or cure. Gavi, (2020) submitted that if people go about their day as normal, each person with the virus can go on to infect around 2.5 people and infect another 2.5 people, within a month, 406 people would be infected just from that first infection. Hence, the need for shutting down of businesses and schools among other places while maintaining social distance amidst other preventive measures. It is important to note that adult can be relied upon on instruction on how to prevent person to person transmission which includes washing of hands rigorously, cough into elbows, and not to touch face but it is of the opposite side for children most especially when in classroom. It can therefore be deduced that school environment is well suited to spread this pandemic because students mingle with their peers and form other similar groups by changing rooms to go to different classes.
UNESCO, (2020) submitted that 87% of the world’s student population is affected by COVID-19 school closures and since the closure of schools to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, governments have been deploying distance learning solutions and grappling with the complexity of provisioning education remotely, from delivering content and supporting teachers to providing guidance to families and addressing connectivity challenges. Evidence from literature have shown that before COVID-19, library service have been transformed from traditional to online services with the use of technology where librarian are at the forefront of this. This initiative has led to change in the nomenclature of librarian like Digital Communication and Learning Initiatives Librarian, Digital Literacy Librarian, Educational Technology Librarian, Instructional Technology Librarian, Serials, E-Resources & Instructional Services Librarian, Data Services Librarian among other. This therefore shows that librarian in the current dispensation must be vast in use of technology and are capable of involving in designing distance education as well as remote learning.
History and Origin of Educational Technology in Nigeria
Education and technology can sometimes be referred to as EduTech or EdTech. Educational technology in Nigeria began with the visual era that is the use of simple teaching aids like apparatus and the preparation of lesson notes. Emphasis was placed on the preparation of simple (low cost) teaching aids in school particularly in Teacher Training Colleges. Richey, (2008) and Kennedy (2019) sees educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. It is the process of integrating technology into education in a positive manner that promotes a more diverse learning environment and a way for students to learn how to use technology as well as their common assignments
It was in 1932, under colonial Britain, that the first form of communication media appeared in Nigeria (Brown, 2015). A Radio Receiving Station was constructed in Lagos. Since then, the development of media has been rapid following the technological development in various parts of the world which have contracts and relationship with Nigeria. The visual era is followed by the Era of Radio media in Education which occurred between early 1940s and 1950s according to Ogunranti (1982). The first educational radio programs were for English language and were broadcast by the Radio Distribution Service under the Post and Telegraphs Department. The Nigerian Broadcasting Service (NBS) was established in 1951 and it took over the educational programme of the station.
Historically, educational technology was also promoted in Nigeria when NBS instituted Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) in 1957. This is the period that government started involving and supporting educational technology in Nigeria. The broadcasting corporation in conjunction with the Ministry of Education’s Audio Visual/Centre at Ibadan broadcasts their first educational programme. This therefore gives other regional ministries of education the clue on the use of education which necessitated establishment of their own audio-visual centres for educational purposes. This landmark achievement in education makes it easy to develop educational radio broadcasting which was also incorporated into NBC’S School Broadcasting unit in 1960 before Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Education Service was established in 1982 with the headquarter in Ibadan.. It is pertinent to submit that radio offers a synchronous educational vehicle. This Radio media and Audio Visual which were first established in Ibadan before the intervention of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) which assisted all Ministries of Education in the country in establishing audio- visual centres in the country. Brown, (2015) submitted that each unit of the Audio-visual centres established by the USAID in the region therefore liaised with broadcasting houses for the broadcast of their recorded programmes. in a likeable manner, this implies that it is the era that witnessed the foreign intervention in the history of educational technology in Nigeria.
Prominent among foreign bodies that assisted the country in promoting and developing educational technology were: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), Ford Foundation, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Carnegie Foundation, The Centre for Educational Development Overseas (CEDO) as well as The British Council. Agun and Imogie, (1988) submitted that Ford Foundation and the British Broadcasting Corporation specifically assisted the old Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation now Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) to establish its Schools Unit while UNESCO also played a significant role in the establishment of the audio-visual units at the Colleges of Education at Abraka and Lagos by supporting both institutions, in both the needed aids and personnel. As Ford Foundation and the British Broadcasting Corporation assisted the old Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, UNESCO and Carnegie Foundation also supported University of Ibadan in establishing its audiovisual aids unit of its Institute of Education in 1962.
History have also shown that the first television sub-Saharan Africa was established on 11 October 1959 by the late Chief Obafemi Awolowo with the intention of using for educational and informative purposes. Researches according to (Dieker, Lane, Allsopp, O'Brien, Butler, Kyger, Lovin, and Fenty, 2009) submitted that video technology has included VHS tapes and DVDs, as well as on-demand and synchronous methods with digital video. This introduced a new dimension to resources and education in Nigeria. Education programmes were part of the television experience from the beginning even though the establishment of the TV (then WNTV) was aimed only at Secondary Grammar Schools and Teacher Training Colleges to reduces teaching deficiencies in subjects such as sciences; to provide examples of good teaching to help upgrade the general quality of classroom instructional activities and also to enrich contents.
It is worthy of note to submit that institutions of higher learning contributed to the history of educational technology in 1970s. Aniemeka, (2005) submitted that Alvan Ikoku College of Education become popular with micro-teaching using television monitors and videotapes recordings and cameras in 1970. The college was able to get large number of student because there was dearth of expert in the country and by mid-1970’s there was need to address these challenges. In the same manner, the University of Ife now Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife established an audiovisual centre and a closed-circuit television (CCTV) in 1974 while the University of Lagos established its audio-visual aid centre and later upgraded it to a Centre for Educational Technology. Also, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria equally established an Educational Technology Centre while at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, a Curriculum and Instructional Materials Centre (CUDIMAC) was also established.
Emerging technology therefore combines the use of physical hardware, software, and educational theoretic to facilitate learning. Educational technology creates, uses, and manages technological processes and educational resources to help improve user academic performance. This advancement seeks to bring learners, teacher, and technical means together in an effective way which result in remote learning and promote distance education.
Nigeria like her counterparts has adopts the use of technology to promote e-learning which may either be synchronous learning which occurs in real-time or Asynchronous learning may use technologies such as learning management systems, email, blogs, wikis, and discussion boards, as well as web-supported textbooks, hypertext documents, audio video courses, and social networking using web 2.0. Also, the linear learning which is also known as Computer-based training (CBT) which refers to as self-paced learning activities delivered on a computer or handheld device such as a tablet or smartphone. This is common in Nigeria and it is being adopted by Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB), a body which regulate admission process in tertiary institution. CBT is also been adopted by most secondary schools in Nigeria. CBT initially delivered content via CD-ROM, and typically presented content linearly, much like reading an online book or manual.
The use of technology also promote the use of Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) which uses instructional methods designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks, allowing social learning. This is also been done with the use of apps that allow students and teachers to interact while studying. This is been use mostly in Nigeria during this coronavirus pandemic. It is been used to replicate classroom in online mode and also for conferences. It is also important to submit that technology promote Flipped classroom an instructional strategy which computer-assisted teaching is integrated with classroom instruction. All these forms of e-learning are in use in Nigeria but with some peculiarities which ranges from manpower, infrastructural facilities, technical-know-how among others which will be discussed in sub-section of this study.
Adoption and Utilisation of Technology in Education
Good education according to Ascough (2002) requires an awareness of the opportunities and limitations of the mode of education. This simply means that an understanding of the nature of the medium is required before designing it as educational environment. Technology is been referred to as an important medium which requires proper understanding before employed in educational settings. Hess (2002) submitted that technology as medium is understood as a source of meaning making. Technology can therefore proffer possible solutions to human needs craved by man for continues existence of life. International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEA), (2000) defined technology as the modification of natural environment to satisfy perceived human wants and needs. Hence, technology can be used to enhance the teaching and learning in the classroom.
Traditionally, teachers are being referred to as the controller of the learning environment and information-giver according to (Aslani, 2003) who uses the textbooks and his/her information, via lecturing method and Instruction. In the same manner, Oludipe and Oludipe, (2007) submitted that many teachers were educated in the classrooms where the role of student was to memorize information, conduct well regulated experiments and were then tested on their ability to repeat these tasks or remember specific facts. This type of learning method is been considered as the parrot-like and superficial, at the end it does not lead to desired behaviour.
The advent of technology in education most especially Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has pager the quality and efficiency of education to the extent that there is no need for physically present to the classroom. ICT in education involves the adoption of general components of information and communication technologies in the teaching and learning process. Farajollahi & Sanaye'i, (2009) submitted that distance education, flexibility, interaction, active learning, cooperation and motivation are some features of ICT in education which makes e-learning different from other method in content, audience, learning style and needs of users. ICT in education there promotes diversity in content and different learning styles, it accommodates large number of audiences as well as different needs of users.
Galbreath (2000) affirmed that technologies have become central to contemporary societies. The immediate society is technological driven because an individual uses technology directly or indirectly on a daily basis either through phone for communication, email messages, at the bank or bank services, in the library or library services, radio and television, in offices, in the plane among others. But the ability of an individual or teacher to put our best on it for educational advancement matters. Integrating technology into education in Africa and Nigeria in particular has always been battling with different happenstances. The readiness and willingness to use technology for educational advancement will be promoted and enhanced by teacher’s level of knowledge. Ololube, (2006) avers that fundamentally, the slow access to technological equipments, proper use of internet connectivity and computers, inadequacies in the use of audiovisual materials and equipment including films, slides, transparencies, projectors, globes, information retrieval systems, and instructional television in technology education programs are evident upon lack of proper training on technology education for effective and professional development of teachers in Nigeria secondary schools.
Also, Persaud (2006) emphasised that the integration process between ICT and school leadership involved a paradigm shift in the headteachers ways of thinking. Ainto (2002) submitted that teachers and school administrators lack competence and there is a need for professional development to gain skills with particular applications of ICT integration into existing curricula, curricular changes related to its use, changes in teacher role, underpinning educational theories such as construction or student-centered learning while the administrator must also be competent in understanding of the technical curricular, financial administration and social dimensions of ICT for the effectiveness of ICT integration in Education.
At the same time, coupled with the teacher’s readiness to use ICT, students must also be knowledgeable and ready to use ICT for educational advancement. Ghavifekr, Afshari & Amla Salleh, (2012) submitted that in integrating ICT into curriculum development, schools and other educational institutions are supposed to prepare students to live in “a knowledge society”. The most important factor that affect both teacher’s and student’s readiness to use ICT is technical assistance. Technical difficulties can become a major problem and a source of frustration for students and teachers in school which is capable of disrupting teaching and learning process. Jamieson-Proctor, Albion, Finger, Cavanagh, Fitzgerald, Bond, &Grimbeek, (2013) was of opinion that if there is lack of technical assistance and no repair on it, teachers are not able to use the computer for temporarily. This is not limited to use of computer alone, rather, any educational technology requires technical assistance in order not to discourage the users. In the same manner, Türel and Johnson’s study (2012) revealed that technical problems become a major barrier for teachers. These problems include low connectivity, virus attack and printer not functioning. However, there are a few exceptions. Yang & Wang, (2012) submitted that schools in the countries like Netherland, United Kingdom and Malta have recognized the importance of technical support to assist teachers to use ICT in the classroom while school in developing countries most especially in Nigeria where there are not enough teachers not to talk of technical assistant.
If all these challenges could be work on adoption and utilisation of technology in schools is capable of improving and increasing the quality, accessibility and cost-efficiency of the delivery of instruction to students. Jamieson-Procter et al., (2013) submitted that when students are familiar with technology and they learn better within technology-based environment because the use of technology in education contributes a lot in the pedagogical aspects in which the application of ICT will lead to effective learning with the help and supports from ICT elements and components. The adoption and utilisation of technology to teaching and learning will not only assist student to learn better and faster but rather overcome the flaws in the traditional education system.
Technology and Distance Education, Remote and Online Education
The advancement of Technology has made possible delivery of different forms of education in our society which either remove or reduce the distances, separate people and communities from educational institutions. The adoption and integration of technology has given so many universities around the world the opportunity to conventional and distance education modes of education. Osuji (2010) submitted that most universities in Kenya use the single mode conventional system of education, while some run the dual mode, while two institutions run the single mode distance education. Higher institutions in Nigeria also run conventional and distance education modes of education. An example of this is Distance Learning Centre (DLC) of University of Ibadan and Distance Learning Institute (DLI) of University of Lagos.
Historically, Anderson & Dron, (2011); Kentnor, (2015) submitted that distance learning which is currently been referred to as online learning in the contemporary world evolves over the last three centuries with key delivery systems of the available tools of the postal system; radio and television; and interactive technologies as at that time. This simply shows that distance learning has been in existence before the advent of computer hence, computer and its technologies only enhance its delivery and perhaps changed its nomenclature from distance learning to online learning.
Jhurree (2005) submitted that much has been said and reported about the impact of technology especially computers in education. It was reported that computers is been used initially to teach computer programming but the development of the microprocessor in the early 1970s saw the introduction of affordable microcomputers into schools at a rapid rate. This is suffice to say, the advancement of computer influences almost all aspects of our lives from work, relationship with others, processing of data to information, analyze and share information, entertain ourselves among others. This does not exempt education which transforms it from traditional to online settings. Yusuf, (2005) submit that the field of education has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning, and research.
Studies have shown that distance learning gains popularity every day, significantly expanding the teaching and learning space not only because computer technologies allow exchange of information meaningfully at any distance within the framework of the student-teacher system but because it allows students to learn inter-faculty university programmes in an in-depth (So & Brush, 2008; Bachmaier, 2011; Beese, 2014; Aktaruzzaman & Plunkett, 2016). This shows that adoption of technology in education sector has facilitated the meaningful exchange of student-teacher information without minding the distance.
Georgiadou, and Siakas (2006) submitted that technology in education gives learners the opportunities to learn from another position either locally, regionally or internationally and even while on the move due to the availability of mobile devices. It also affords the learner the opportunities to learn at their own pace and without a fixed timetable over prescribed academic sessions unlike traditional mode of education. While teachers or facilitators also benefits in the same direction with learners from the flexibility of online education with the adoption of technology in education.
In the same manner Popovich and Neel, (2005) submitted that the obvious advantages of online programs to the university include increasing enrollments and profits, extending university reach, increasing student technological skills, mitigating the projected shortfall in instructors, eliminating overcrowding of classrooms, reducing infrastructure cost, allowing students to work at their own pace and learning style, reducing faculty bias, and improving retention and graduation rates. Online education requires certain skills from design, to support system among others before any university can embark on it, but the salient question is that how ready are universities around the world most especially universities in developing countries? Kentnor, (2015) submitted that that lack of understanding of online pedagogy and online learning styles, lack of administrative support for online education and for marketing the program, number of students enrolled, faculty qualifications, tuition rates, and length of the program can doom the program to failure.
In the same manner, studies have shown that there are still some institutional and financial obstacles to holistic implementation of a distance learning framework, such as shortage of skilled teachers (Baran, Correia & Thompson, 2011) and the lack of technical equipment (Rogerson-Revell, 2015) and poor government support (Piña, 2010). From the students perspectives Porter, Hampshire, Milner, Munthali, Robson, De Lannoy, and Abane, (2016) argues that majority of African students might access Internet and related education content on their mobiles, but it is important that the harmful impact such as addiction to smartphones is also taken into consideration while formulating policy (especially for school going students) to ensure better educational outcomes.
Without mincing words, conventional learning is suitable for category of learner namely young children, teenagers, and young adolescents who are yet to join the workforce because of rigidity in nature while which include regular class attendance, regular schedule among others while distance education and online education is flexible in nature and accommodate all categories of learners and affords students an opportunity to learn at the comfort of their office or home. It is therefore can also serve as a best mean of educating children during pandemic like Coronavirus because it will prevent students from contacting the virus. Although, among the peculiarities of online education is that learners are not directly interacting with their mates as well as their faculty. But it is pertinent to submit that peculiarities of traditional education are been replaced with some other feature from online education. For instance, direct interaction between students and the faculties are been replaced with the use of query resolution like online forums, emails, and chatrooms.
Technology and the New Face of Librarian
The advancement in technology has revolutionized the world and has impacted different sectors, library inclusive. Sanjeeva (2018) avers that libraries has witnessed transformation from the traditional operations and service delivery. Technology most especially ICT has plays a prominent role in changing the traditional library service. This changes could be traced from handwritten cataloguing to the use of typewriter and presently to what is being refer to as online public access cataloguing (OPAC), an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries. Eje, and Dushu, (2018) affirmed this submission that towards the beginning of the 21st century world over, there has been a phenomenal paradigm shift in the rendering of library and information services. The implication of the influence and impact of ICT been felt in all sphere of human development also have great impact on library and information services.
Emphasizing the importance of ICT to library services, Olise (2010) submitted that the introduction of ICTs had brought about computerization of traditional materials such as books, journals newspaper and other information resources which made possible existence of what is known as digital or virtual library today. With the innovation like digital or virtual library, library user can access current literature materials with ease and also facilitate and promote not only interoperability but collaboration among researchers irrespective of their locations. This simply implies that librarian must be vast in the use of technology most especially emerging technologies in order to deliver effectively and efficiently in the current world.
With the above, Omekwu (2006) questions the skills development of librarian as an information service delivery who is meant to support organisations, institutions and research by facilitating access to a libraries extensive range of information resources and challenges. It was submitted that the practitioners are expected to brace up for the demand of their work by improving on their competency skills; knowledge and attitude to enable them provide appropriate information service delivery. In the same manner, Youngok, (2006) submitted that change in structure is not without its attendant challenges as electronic and digital libraries come along with their peculiar characteristics despite sharing the same purpose of preserving, organizing and distributing information resources as in the case of traditional libraries.
The effect of ICT on library is being all over the world. In Nigeria, Mwamba (2002), noted that librarian and library services is witnessing shift in focus of operation from library-centred to information-centred; from the library as an institution to the library as an information provider, and to the librarian as a skilled information specialist functioning in all-related information environment, which require the use of new method known as automation of library functions for the enhancement of information access and delivery not physically contained within the four walls of the library but from library networking for information provision to area networking for all types of information resources provided. This therefore shows that librarian and library services in Nigeria like their counterparts around the world are wearing new face.
The nomenclature of librarian has changed with the adoption and utilisation of library services to include Digital Communication and Learning Initiatives Librarian, Digital Literacy Librarian, Educational Technology Librarian, Instructional Technology Librarian, Serials, E-Resources and Instructional Services Librarian, Data Services Librarian among other. All these job titles require that librarian must have and possess technological skills and be digitally literate in order to be able to function on the job. For instance, Data Service Librarian is expected to have experience in conducting data-driven academic research, data management and/or visualization applications (e.g., R, SAS, SPSS, Matlab, Tableau, and ArcGIS) while Instruction and Engagement Librarian is expected to be able to conduct information literacy and research instruction, both in-person and online, create and integrate online instructional content into the University’s learning management system (Blackboard), LibGuides, and other educational technology platforms, develop integrated peer learning and support services in line with library and campus goals for student success and also to build library and campus partnerships which deliver programs and services that target and improve student retention and success, including guidance in training and assessment of peer learning and support services among others. All these new face shows that librarian should be at the forefront of designing and supporting online and distance education most especially in this current pandemic. This is been affirmed by the submission of Atkinson (2018) that academic libraries are working closely with other departments across the university particularly where there are “strong shared interests and activities such as the delivery of IT based services with computer centres”.
Examples of Emerging Technologies for Replication of Classroom Experience in an Online Environment
There are lot of applications been designed for replication of classroom experiences in an online environment. Four of the these apps (Zoom, A-Z screen recorder, Google hangout, Slack) will be considered for the purpose of this study. All these apps are been used for educational purposes. The apps are been used online for classroom and conference purposes except a-z screen recorder which is mainly for recording purposes and it can also be used for conference as well.
A-Z Screen Recorder does not require root and has no limit on recording length Once it is been downloaded and installed on android phone, follow these steps:
- Launch the A-Z Screen Recorder app from your app drawer.
- An overlay with four buttons will appear. Tap the gear icon to tweak video recording settings including recording resolution, frame rate, and bit rate. Press Back to return to the home screen.
- Open the app or navigate to the screen to be recorded.
- Tap the red camera shutter icon in the A-Z overlay. The video will begin recording. Continue your presentation until you’re ready to stop recording.
- When finished, pull down the notification shade. In the A-Z notification you can either pause or stop recording.
Zoom for Classroom – Zoom app is different from a-z screen recorder which can only be used on android. Zoom can be used on either desktop or android phone. After downloading the zoom app and registered online. Follow these procedure to schedule and to join a meeting/class.
1. Go to https://zoom.us/meeting (You may be prompted to sign in but will be redirected to the page after)
2. Click the blue “Schedule a New Meeting” button in the top left corner
3. Enter in Topic, Date, and other related details and press Schedule. It is recommended that you make Registration required when scheduling a meeting, as that allows you to generate a registration report after the meeting is over.
How to join a Class/Meeting
1. Join via meeting URL
• Open the email, newsletter, calendar invite, or other communication that contains a link to the pre-scheduled meeting and click the URL to join the Zoom Meeting.
2. Join through desktop client using the Meeting ID.
• Open the Zoom desktop app.
• Click on the Home Button.
• Click Join and type in the provided Meeting ID and your name
Google Hangout – It is a communication software developed by Google. With Hangouts, teachers are able to conduct more virtual classrooms at a greater number of places. The following guide can be employed in conducting virtual classroom:
- Create Gmail accounts for all the nodes (transmission and reception). The Google+ accounts operate through Gmail accounts
- Network the Google+ nodes once the accounts are created. It is necessary to connect the various nodes with each other by sending and accepting contact requests
- Create relevant circles. The transmission node should create subject-wise circles and include the relevant reception nodes in the circle.
- Integrate your YouTube, Picasa accounts with your Google+ account. This way you can transmit videos & photos. You can also transmit Power Point presentations,or any file from your screen by clicking the option "share your screen"
- Test the system and the network at each node. View the audio and video quality and clarity. Make any necessary adjustments to perfect the connections.
- Conduct a few trial sessions on topics of general interest to enable the students and teachers to get acclimatized to the system
- Start conducting virtual classrooms with Google Hangouts. And when you succeed, share the methodology and success stories with other teachers, to encourage more educators to make use of this easy and enjoyable method of information sharing and learning
Slack is a communication and task management tool where users can create specialized messaging groups, or “channels,” according to different projects, teams, and organizations. The following procedure can be taken in setting up classroom on slack:
- Go to slack.com and create an account using your email address. follow the instruction to set up your account.
- If you already have an account, go to slack.com and enter your workspace
- Create or enter a channel for specialized group chatting.
- start or enter direct messages to have one-to-one conversations
- Invite teammates by sending the emails from slack
- send messages or files in the channel
- You can respond, or react to message and more
There more tools that can employed in replicating classroom online and it is expected of librarian to be of part of education development because teaching is the primary responsibility of many academic librarians. Often times, librarians are expected to collaborate with teachers to help them find necessary materials and resources to enhance classroom instruction. During this coronavirus pandemic, librarian can expose teachers to latent opportunities in using emerging technologies to replicate classroom experiences in an online environment.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The study examined the role of librarian in Replication of classroom experience in an online environment. It shows that technology has contributed immensely to the advancement of education in Nigeria. The study also shows that librarian has been using technology in discharging their duties effectively before the coronavirus pandemic. The changes in nomenclature witnessed through involvement of technology in the library services have shown that librarian are vast in the use of technology most especially for promoting online education. During this pandemic period, replication of classroom experience in an online environment has been the concern of International organisation, Governmental and Non-governmental Organisations with the lockdown of school around the world. Online or distance education through the use of technology in delivering education has been regarded as mean of reaching students. It is expected of librarian to collaborate or assist teacher in educational delivery, this study therefore concludes that librarian with the integration and utilisation of technology in the service delivery are expected to support teachers in replicating classroom experience in an online environment.
This study therefore recommends that International organisation, Governmental and Non-governmental organisation and all stakeholder should collaborate with librarian in choosing and designing online classroom. At the local level, school administrators should collaborate with librarian in replicating classroom experience online. School administrators should consult librarian in training teachers virtually on how to use different tools for online education.
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